Basic research on the spread of vaccination in the Kyushu area and the modernization of regional health care

Basic research on the spread of vaccination in the Kyushu area and the modernization of regional health care

 Outline of results

After several failed attempts active vaccine finally arrived in Japan on 11th August 1849. From Nagasaki it quickly spread throughout Kyushu as many Japanese physicians were already well aware of the principles of inoculation and the safety of vaccination compared to variolation. Nevertheless, there were remarkable differences within the domains depending on the local finances and the policies adopted by the ruling clan. During this three-year project a considerable number of related old documents have been discovered and the routes and means of the propagation of vaccination have been clarified significantly. The Saga clan, for example, introduced a well-organized and completely financed vaccination policy. In the Ōmura domain vaccine material from inoculated recipients was collected in all villages in order to maintain uninterrupted vaccination activities. In Nakatsu well-informed physicians brought vaccine from Nagasaki and partly from Saga as well. Two years later merchants financed the establishment of a medical house (igakkan) for further studies and vaccination. In the Fukuoka domain too, a clan physician took the initiative in 1849 until his activities were acknowledged and supported by the clan. During those early years vaccination was maintained by arm-to-arm transfer, but in 1858 Kokura domain physicians experimented with the retrovaccination (cow-human-cow-human transfer) introduced by Galbiati and Troja in 1803. 

The effects of vaccination could be easily observed during the frequent small-pox outbreaks. This deeply influenced the general acceptance of Western medicine and the establishment of regional health care structures. It also stimulated the establishment of networks between rural physicians studying “Dutch-style Medicine” (ranpō-igaku).

Fighting Small-Pox – Vaccination in Kyushu (Tennentō to no tatakai – Kyūshū no shutō). Tokyo: Iwata Shoin, 2018

 

Introduction

Small-pox in Kyushu                                                                                           Toshiyuki AOKI

 

General Background

Small-pox – its global expansion and eradication                                    Tadaomi AIKAWA

On the spread of variolation in Japan                                                          Toshiyuki AOKI

Small-pox in early modern Japan as seen by Europeans                       Wolfgang MICHEL

On the dawn of vaccination in Japan                                                           Toshiyuki AOKI

Reevaluating the beginning of vaccination in Japan                               Toshiyuki AOKI

 

Special Topics

Small-pox and Nagasaki                                                                                    Tadaomi AIKAWA

Vaccination in the Ōmura Domain                                                                Yūki YAMAUCHI

The small-pox deities of Saga                                                                          Shinji KANEKO

Vaccination in the Saga Domain                                                                     Toshiyuki AOKI, Akari HORI

Medical treatment and vaccination in the territory of Taku                Toshiyuki AOKI

The „Medical School“ of the Chōshū Clan and vaccination                  Ayako Ogawa

Vaccination in the Kokura Domain                                                                Toshiyuki AOKI

Yūshi Takeya and the introction of vaccination by the Fukuoka Clan             Wolfgang MICHEL

Medicine in the Kurume Domain                                                                   Yōichi YOSHIDA

Fighting small-pox in the Nakatsu Domain                                                 Wolfgang MICHEL

Curing small-pox in the Kumamoto Domain                                              Akihide Ōshima

Kenkai Wakayama and vaccination in Miyazaki                                        Ryō UMIHARA

Vaccination in the Satsuma Domain                                                             Shōzō TAMURA

Vaccination as seen in documents of the Kuroe family                          Masahiro IMAJŌ

Vaccination in Amakusa                                                                                    Toshiyuki AOKI

 

Closing Chapter

On the comparison and evaluation of variolation and vaccination   Wolfgang MICHEL

天然痘との闘いー九州の種痘 Fighting Small-Pox – Vaccination in Kyushu (Tennentō to no tatakai – Kyūshū no shutō). Tokyo: Iwata Shoin, 2018.6 ISBN978-4-86602-036-5

 

Introduction

Small-pox in Kyushu                                                                                           Toshiyuki AOKI

 

General Background

Small-pox – its global expansion and eradication                                    Tadaomi AIKAWA

On the spread of variolation in Japan                                                          Toshiyuki AOKI

Small-pox in early modern Japan as seen by Europeans                       Wolfgang MICHEL

On the dawn of vaccination in Japan                                                           Toshiyuki AOKI

Reevaluating the beginning of vaccination in Japan                               Toshiyuki AOKI

 

Special Topics

Small-pox and Nagasaki                                                                                    Tadaomi AIKAWA

Vaccination in the Ōmura Domain                                                                Yūki YAMAUCHI

The small-pox deities of Saga                                                                          Shinji KANEKO

Vaccination in the Saga Domain                                                                     Toshiyuki AOKI, Akari HORI

Medical treatment and vaccination in the territory of Taku                Toshiyuki AOKI

The „Medical School“ of the Chōshū Clan and vaccination                  Ayako Ogawa

Vaccination in the Kokura Domain                                                                Toshiyuki AOKI

Yūshi Takeya and the introction of vaccination by the Fukuoka Clan             Wolfgang MICHEL

Medicine in the Kurume Domain                                                                   Yōichi YOSHIDA

Fighting small-pox in the Nakatsu Domain                                                 Wolfgang MICHEL

Curing small-pox in the Kumamoto Domain                                              Akihide Ōshima

Kenkai Wakayama and vaccination in Miyazaki                                        Ryō UMIHARA

Vaccination in the Satsuma Domain                                                             Shōzō TAMURA

Vaccination as seen in documents of the Kuroe family                          Masahiro IMAJŌ

Vaccination in Amakusa                                                                                    Toshiyuki AOKI

 

Closing Chapter

On the comparison and evaluation of variolation and vaccination   Wolfgang MICHEL

緒方洪庵の適塾へ肥前門人は何を求めてでかけたか

緒方洪庵の適塾へ肥前門人は何を求めてでかけたか。

 

 適塾の門人は、『適々斎塾姓名録』には637人が記載されている。そのうち、肥前(佐賀県域)出身門人の動向をできるだけ紹介して、肥前(佐賀県域)の門人にとって緒方塾はどのような役割を期待されていたかを検討する。

 現在の佐賀県域出身の適塾門人は、以下の34人が知られる。番号は『適々斎塾姓名録』記載順。

佐賀県域出身門人一覧

33  迎文益   西肥神埼郡   佐賀県                           医→医

87  伊東玄敬           肥州藩       佐賀県   弘化三年九月一二日入塾 医→医

129  渋谷良耳          肥前佐賀     佐賀県                     医→医

130  志田春庵          肥前武雄     佐賀県                     医→医

131   坂本徳之助 肥前佐賀藩   佐賀県   嘉永元年初秋               医―医

134   佐野栄寿          肥前佐賀藩   佐賀県   嘉永元年中秋    1     医→官僚

135   宮田魯斎          肥前佐賀藩   佐賀県   嘉永元年中秋           医→医

161   大中玄哲          肥前佐賀中原、佐賀県、 嘉永二年七月一〇日入塾 医→医

172   尾形良益          肥前多久               佐賀県   嘉永二年九月二〇日入門 医→医

174   井上静軒          肥前佐賀               佐賀県   嘉永二年一〇月五日入門 医→医

176   朝日宗郁          肥前佐賀               佐賀県  嘉永二年一一月六日入門 医→医

229   中西仲英          肥前武雄               佐賀県  嘉永五年初夏            医→医

262   岩谷玄良          肥前武雄     佐賀県  嘉永六年五月          医→医

267   吉田泰春          西肥佐賀     佐賀県  嘉永六年六月          医→医

300   武富文益          肥前佐賀     佐賀県  嘉永六年        医→医

328   永尾卯吉郎 肥前藤木田中村佐賀県  安政二年三月二日入門  医→医

374   瀧野文道          肥前佐賀     佐賀県  安政三年四月二日入門  医→医

381   蒲原豊安          肥前佐賀    佐賀県   安政三年五月一七日入門 医→医

419   本野周造          肥前         佐賀県  安政四年七月二四日   医→ジャーナリスト

435   相良寛斎          肥州佐賀藩   佐賀県  安政五年二月八日入門  医→医

458   馬渡礼介          肥前佐賀     佐賀県  安政五年一〇月八日入門 医→医

463   河原謙吾          肥前佐賀     佐賀県  安政五年一一月二五日入門 医→ 医

474   西岡周碩          肥前佐賀藩  佐賀県   安政六年三月六日      医→法律家

480   西 春濤          肥州多久   佐賀県  安政六年三月一一日   医→医

492   小出文堂          西肥佐賀   佐賀県   安政六年六月四日入門  医→医

516  中野雲圭          鍋島藩     佐賀県 安政六年一二月一六日入門 医→医

546   大須賀道貞 肥州佐賀    佐賀県 万延元年六月九日入門  医→医

547   古賀元才           肥州佐賀  佐賀県 万延元年六月九日入門  医→医

548   福地文安  肥州佐賀       佐賀県 万延元年六月九日入門  医→医

573   花房元淑          西肥佐賀藩 佐賀県 万延二年二月二三日入門 医→医

574   後藤祐益           肥州佐賀  佐賀県 万延二年三月五日入門  医→医

207   中村俊策   肥前         佐賀県 嘉永二年五月入門      ―

475   斎藤春庵          肥前      佐賀県 安政六年三月六日      ―

476   角春静   肥前           佐賀県   安政六年三月六日      ―